Back to the Paraverse!                                                                                  Topsy-turvy 1585  Sampler   &   Reviews  &  Summary

611 WAYS! "We" and "They" are


 The Appeal of Topsy-turvydom

  Frois vs. Herodotus & Al-Bîrûnî  (champions of black & white contrast)
ii   Historical value of common things  (Frois’s nose-picking  vs. Rodrigues on Zen gardens)
iii   The Nature of Contrast (a role for both relativity and  judgment, and the problem of incommensurables)
iv   Valignano and the origin of a contrary Japan  (Equal but opposite “white” Japanese, the policy of Cultural Accom-modation of the Bungo Consultation of 1580, and the Tratado of Frois  hypothesized as cultural shock therapy.)
Topsy-turvy over the period of Seclusion  (Fun from Maffei, Van Linschoten, Carletti, Montanus, L’Abbe de T, Kaempfer, Golownin, Thunberg).


vi  Modern Topsy-Turvy  (Alcock, Alice, Kipling  and the explosion of Topsy-turvy in English literature)
vii   “   “  “  “   Chamberlain  (An attempt to patent Topsy-turvy?   Many examples not in Frois.)
viii    “  “  “  “  Lowell  (A grandiose metaphysical venture in Topsy-turvy socio-psychology)
ix    “  “  “  Knapp (the Principle of Inversion and affection for a dying culture)
x  Topsy-turvy in broader perspective  (“Us” vs. India, vs. China, or, more than one possible contrary).
xi   Post-modern topsy-turvy (Singer, Barthes, O-young)
xii  The Discovery of Frois’s TRATADO. (Schütte, S.J.)

I                        Men

1-1 Body
1-2 Eyes
1-3 Eyes
1-4 Noses
1-5 Beard
1-6 Beard vs. topknot
1-7 Hair-cut vs. shaving pate
1-8 Freckles
1-9 Pockmarks
1-10 Fingernails
1-11 Sword scars

1-1+  Dress, seasonal
1-2+  Clothes, colorful
1-3+ Dress, fashion vs. tradition
1-4+ Vests
1-5+ Sleeves
1-6+ Breeches, design
1-7+ Breeches, material
1-8+ Dress with/without gender
1-9+ Dress,  tight vs. loose fit
1-10+ Dress, access of hands
1-11+ Dress, best side out vs. inside
1-12+ Lining

1-13+ Fur, on inside or outside
1-14+ Shaving head for relief
1-15+ Shaving beard vs. top-knot
1-16+ Robe, wrap direction
1-17+ Mantle vs. open lapel collar
1-18+ Folding clothing
1-19+ Handkerchiefs, cloth vs. paper
1-20+ Removing hat vs. shoes
1-21+ Swords, double/single-edged
1-22+ Scabbards
1-23+ Sword handles
1-24+ Sword-testing
1-25+  Worn sword: which side up
1-26+  Raincoats
1-27+ Walking just to walk
1-28+  Valuable sword adorned
1-29+  Standing vs. sitting to greet
1-30+  Black, white and psyche
1-31+ Nudity front vs. back
1-32+ Nudity on the road
1-33+ Spitting vs. swallowing
1-34+ Swords 1 and 2-handed
1-35+ Shoes, leather/straw
1-36+  Shoes: removal shows respect
1-37+  Shoes: remove at entrance
1-38+  Washing faces

1-39+ Kneeling-obeisance
1-40+ Hat shape
1-41+ Patches on clothes
1-42+ Scissors and knife
1-43+ Fans and Men
1-44+ Torches
1-45+ Nudity before fire
1-46+ Looking in mirrors
1-47+ Paper Clothing
1-48+  House-robes
1-49+ Laundry by hand vs. foot
1-50+ Handkerchief carrying
1-51+ Pockets vs. Purses
1-52+ Things in Purses
1-53+ Bathing in private/public
1-54+ Shoes and geta in rain
1-55+ Shoe and tabi leathers
1-56+ Glove length
1-57+ Unfinished clothing
1-58+ Shoe soles
1-59+ Shoe length
1-60+ Walking style
1-61+ See-through clothing
1-62+ Skirt and robe length
1-63+ Black cloth, white stitches

(only this chapter has the double count)

II               Women

2-1  Chastity
2-2  Desirable Hair-color
2-3  Hair-parts
2-4  Hair perfume vs. oil
2-5  Wigs
2-6  Hair ornaments
2-7  Hair ties
2-8  Bonnets
2-9   Shampoo location
2-10 Trains vs. Wig-trains
2-11  Eyebrow treatment
2-12  Forehead cosmetics
2-13  White hair
2-14  Pierced Ears
2-15  Heavy make-up
2-16  Tooth color
2-17   Bracelets
2-18   Necklaces
2-19  Sleeve-length, nudity
2-20  Bare feet
2-21  Belts, tight vs. loose

2-22  Rings and other jewelry
2-23  Purses and belts
2-24  Dress-front Open/Closed
2-25  Gloves
2-26  Mantle length
2-27  Mantle design
2-28  Uniforms
2-29   M and F Walking Order
2-30   M and F  Property
2-31  Divorce frequency
2-32   M and F Divorcing party
2-33  Abduction
2-34  Seclusion vs. Freedom
2-35  Husband’s Permission
2-36  Relatives
2-37  Umbrella bearers
2-38  Abortions
2-39  Infanticide
2-40  Pregnancy belts
2-41  Post-partum rest
2-42  Post-partum ventilation
2-43  Nuns, strict vs. profligate
2-44  Nuns stay in vs. go out
2-45  Writing

2-46  Letters signed or not
2-47  First Names
2-48  Shoe material
2-49  Horse-riding style
2-50   Saddle pads/cloths
2-51  M & F  Which is cook?
2-52  M&F  Which is tailor?
2-53  M&F  Height of tables
2-54  Drinking
2-55  Eating Meat
2-56  Talking and Mantles
2-57  Talking and partitions
2-58  Out-of-bounds for women
2-59  Carrying Things
2-60  Greeting guests stand/sit
2-61  Masks, collars  vs towels
2-62  Hair cut-off
2-63  Sitting
2-64  Drinking method
2-65  Hair braiding and tying
2-66  Make-up powder quantity
2-67  Thimbles
2-68  Taking apart garments




3-1  Hair, trim vs. long
3-2  Swaddling vs. freedom
3-3  Cradles vs. nature
3-4  Age of baby-carriers
3-5  Securing baby clothing
3-6  Eating by hand vs. chopstick
3-7  Whipping
3-8  Schooling
3-9  Write first vs. read first
3-10  Catechism vs. pederasty
3-11  Giving messages
3-12  Carrying swords, age of.
3-13  Respect for custom
3-14  Ability to perform in public
3-15  Gifts and affection
3-16  Parents & children
3-17  Godparents
3-18  Mothers & children outside
3-19  Name-changes
3-20  Relatives & children
3-21  Inheritance, age of
.3-22  Health, bleeding vs. burning
3-23  Cosmetics on children
3-24  Sleeves,  restricted vs. free


IV      Monks & Bonzes

Please excuse the excess space between lines. It is caused by poor design of Frontpage that gives each line  an unwanted space.  By closing and hitting shift+enter, these dead-spaces can be killed, but I have no time to do so now. I pray MS will improve its website-making software to better reflect what is copied to it from MS-Word.

4-1  Reasons to join an Order

4-2  Chaste monks, sinful bonzes

4-3  Fleeing riches, seeking riches

4-4  Obedience to Superior

4-5  Property, collective/indivual

4-6  Patronage, collective/indiv.

4-7  Condemning sins & situation

4-8   Humble vs. fine clothing

4-9   Titles, seeking/avoiding

4-10  Peace-loving, War-loving

4-11  Promises to God

4-12   Working as Envoys

4-13  Marriage

4-14  Succession methods

4-15  Reasons to join an Order

4-16  Clean inside vs. outside

4-17  Hating lies, Living off them

4-18  Beards and Hair

4-19  Hats

4-20  Decency vs. Indecency


4-21  Drinking

4-22  Singing and Playing

4-23  Immortality: belief vs. disbelief

4-24   One Church vs. 13 sects

4-25   Devil-hating vs. liking

4-26  Temple ownership

4-27  Stole worn inside vs. outside

4-28  Stole vertical vs. diagonal

4-29  Medical activity

4-30  Fans for preaching

4-31   Preaching posture

4-32   Preaching dress

4-33  Pulpits vs. chairs

4-34  Give rosaries vs. Sell charms

4-35   Burial gowns given/sold

4-36   Funeral in church vs. house

4-37   Yellow

4-38   Hating other sects

4-39   Sorcerers

4-40   Sock color

4-41   Funeral suicide

4-42   How we beg God’s mercy



Ch. 5  Temples & Images

 5-1  Deep church, shallow temple
5-2  Pews vs. tatami mats
5-3   Books in-common vs. individual
5-4  Books folded vs. rolled up
5-5  Images retabulo vs. sculpture
5-6  Polychrome vs. gilt images
5-7  Life-size vs. gigantic images
5-8  Beautiful vs. horrid images
5-9   Bells, hung high vs. low
5-10 Clapper within; struck without
5-11  Bells, tolling vs. not tolling
5-12  Clocks, iron vs. water
5-13  Hours, number in a day
5-14  Hours, method of counting
5-15  Vegetation in the church
5-16   Candles, shape
5-17  Candles, wicks
5-18   Prayer-bead moving direction
5-19   Deceased, the hair of.
5-20  Coffin shape
5-21  Deceased, position of.
5-22  Burial vs. incineration
5-23  Prayers posted in- vs. outside
5-24  Funeral, aftermath
5-25  Changing faith
5-26  Initiation
5-27  1 vs 2 religions for 2 worlds
5-28  Images, painted on what.
5-29  Oil-color vs. black-ink value
5-30  Transporting prelates


VI   Food & Drink


6-1  Fingers vs. chopsticks

6-2  Bread vs. Rice

6-3  Tables, stationary vs. carried

6-4  Tables, high vs. low

6-5   Chairs vs. tatami mat

6-6   Dishes sequential or all at once

6-7   Soup

6-8   Service, silver vs. lacquer

6-9   Pots, earthenware vs. iron

6-10  Tripods, legs up or down.

6-11  M & F eat together vs. apart

6-12  Fish, cooked vs. raw

6-13  Fruit, eating ripe vs. green

6-14  Melons, direction of cut.

6-15  Melons, sniffing top or bottom

6-16  Melons, pared or not pared

6-17  Green grapes

6-18  Covering food

6-19  Sweet-lovers vs. Salt-lovers

6-20  Cleaning up after meals

6-21  Washing hands after meals

6-22  Vermicelli, eaten hot vs. cold

6-23  Vermi., with sugar, with chili

6-24  Our foods, their strange foods

6-25  Trout

6-26  Wine, cooled or heated

6-27  Wine, grape vs. rice

6-28  Drinking, one vs. two hands



6-29  Drinking posture

6-30  Drinking cups, fine vs. crude

6-31  Drinking, forced.

6-32  Drinking from a dirty dish

6-33  Water, drunken cool vs. hot

6-34  Water, drunk with burnt rice

6-35  Drinking, time it starts

6-36  Water drunk from dirty dish

6-37  Toothpicks

6-38  Drunkenness, attitude toward.

6-39  Dairy products

6-40  Spices vs. miso

6-41  Beef-eating vs. dog-eating

6-42  Fish-gut

6-43  Noise while eating

6-44  Drinking, expression while.

6-45  Conversing/dancing at table

6-46  Guest/Host – who thanks whom

6-47  Fried fish vs. fried seaweed

6-48  Fishing

6-49  Cleaning teeth, time of.

6-50  Root-eating poor

6-51  Rotten fish

6-52  Wine-selling citizens

6-53  Pets

6-54  Pastry material

6-55  Boar, boiled vs. raw

6-56  Salt

6-57  Saltiness

6-58  Rice with or without salt

6-59   Mullet

6-60  Belching



VII  War & Weapons

7-1   Swords, straight vs. curved7-2   Hilt length7-3   Baldrics vs. sashes7-4  One sword per side vs. two7-5   Daggers, short vs. long7-6   Swords, things hanging from.7-7  Swordplay, stabbing7-8  Presented swords7-9  Scabbards, extra things in.7-10  Swords, New vs. Old as better7-11  Number of blades worn7-12  Knife handles7-13  Knife Cutting direction7-14  Beads cut by knife vs. lathe7-15  Nails cut by knife vs. scissors7-16  Carving decoration7-17   Spearhead shape7-18  Spear shaft finish7-19  Halberds vs. Naginata7-20  Mortars and Guns7-21  Powder horns7-22   Bows7-23  Arrows7-24  Bows, Shooting and Clothing.7-25  Shouting while shooting7-26  Shields, curved vs.  flat & long7-27  Armor, weight7-28  Armor, material7-29  Helmet plumes7-30  Helmet visors7-31  Helmet, shape7-32  Armor, what is underneath7-33  Armor, on horses7-34  Music in battle7-35  Battle standards7-36  Ranks7-37  Fighting on horseback7-38  Salary of soldiers7-39  Rewards of battle7-40  Carriers, animal vs. human7-41  Suicide7-42  Treason7-43  Executioner’s status7-44  Helmet wigs7-45  Razor shape7-46  Whetstones, oil vs water7-47  Shaving, by barbers, by oneself7-48  Shaving beards and heads7-49  Match (for matchlock) hand7-50  Match material7-51  Yell with each blow, fencing7-52  Placement of gun butt


Midword:  China versus Japan

i. Battle of the antipodes  (Is Japan too idiosyncratic to be a bona fide opposite culture or “antidote” for us?   Embree  vs.  Moore,  Pollack)

ii. Japan over China? (European view of Japanese superiority to Chinese.  Pinto on the wonders of China.  But Frois corrects mistaken idea that Chinese can’t fight!)

iii. The Chineseness of Japan (How contrary Japan comes from China shown by contrary China in Moge, Ball and Ripley’s)


iv  The Un-Chineseness of Japan (Japan  born in opposition to China – Valignano and Van Linschoten)

v  Japanese-Chinese Topsy-turvy  (How Japan can be seen as contrary to China, rather than following China (Valignano’s pre Europe-Japan contrast)

vi  Japan more Chinese than China? (On the Chinese roots of things Japanese, and the Japanese way of preserving culture intact.)

vii The True Orient  (Get a shovel and start digging?)

Envoi:  What about Marco Polo? (Diversity, yes; the contrary, no.


VIII      Horses

8-1  Horse’s appearance8-2  Horse’s handling8-3   Riding on rumps8-4   Riding abreast8-5  Tail, full vs. tied in knot8-6  Manes, full vs. clipped8-7  Horse shoes material8-8  Straw shoe carrier8-9  Bits8-10  Mounting side8-11  Reins, material8-12  Stirrup length8-13  Stirrup shape8-14  Spurs8-15  Saddle bows8-16   Trappings8-17   Saddle material8-18   Stable location8-19   Reception in the Stable!8-20  Curry comb vs. Rope8-21  Mangers vs. Buckets8-22  Sleeping8-23  Stable ground vs. floor8-24  Ladle for stale (urine)!8-25  Mules, zebras, etc.8-26  Saddle cloths8-27  Rider holding halter!8-28  Reins, 1 or 2 in hand8-29  Medical treatment8-30  Reins, tight and loose8-31  Tilling, Horse & Ox8-32  Pack-saddle material8-33  Crupper for loads8-34  Bells and Jingles8-35  Bulls, character8-36  Carriers help horses!8-37  Loading by eye vs. scale8-38  Leading, with 2 men per horse!8-39  Girth tie location


Ch  9   Disease & Medicine



9-1  Scrofula, stones, gout, pest

9-2  Bleeding vs. Moxibustion

9-3  Bleeding, location

9-4  Clysters and Syringes

9-5  Prescriptions

9-6  Pulse-taking

9-7  Urine

9-8   Healing speed

9-9   Wound Sewing vs. Paper

9-10  Medical Cloth vs. Paper

9-11  Burning Abscesses

9-12  Force-feeding

9-13  Beds, soft and hard

9-14  Food for the sick

9-15  Dentistry tools

9-16  Mortars

9-17  Pearls for medicine

9-18  Licensing of practitioner

9-19  The Pox



Ch. 10  Writing



10-1  Letters vs. infinite characters

10-2  Study books vs. characters

10-3  L-to-R vs. R-to-L & vertical

10-4  Where Books Begin

10-5  Printing

10-6   Pens vs. Brushes

10-7   Ink

10-8  Inkwells vs. slabs of stone

10-9   Inkwell paraphernalia

10-10  Paper variety

10-11  Notary public vs. indiv. chop

10-12  Constant mark, changing chop

10-13  Paper, rag vs. bark

10-14  Length of Letters

10-15  Writing between lines

10-16   Letters, folded vs. rolled

10-16a  Dating letters

10-17  Christian vs Japanese eras

10-18  Sealing Letters

10-19  Mailing Letters

10-20  Making Paper

10-21  Ink, wiping vs. sucking!

10-22  Writing, on desk vs. on hand

10-23  Unsealing?

10-24  Blotting

10-25  Size of Lettering

10-26  Poems

10-27  Reading speed

10-28  Desks

10-29  Book binding



Ch.  11   Home & Garden



11-1   Houses, tall vs. low11-2   Stone & lime vs. mud & straw11-3   Foundations11-4   Doors11-5  Partitions11-6   Roofs11-7   Interior wood11-8   Windows11-9  Valuables: gems vs. old pots11-10  Tapestry vs. byôbû11-11  Carpets vs. Straw mats11-12  Chests and baskets11-13  Sleeping high vs. low11-14  Beds Out vs.  hidden11-15  Pillows11-16  Pavilions vs. mosquito net

11-17  Sweeping noblemen! 11-18  Linen for faces11-19  Lavatory placement

11-20  Defecating posture 11-21  Night-soil value11-22  Horse dung11-23  Locks11-24  Compartments vs. drawers11-25  Carpenters’ work posture11-26 

Gimlets11-27  Carpenters fed or not fed11-28  Adze11-29  Prefab. lumber!11-30  Figures in paintings, # of.11-31  Fruit vs. flowering-trees11-32  Fireplaces vs. kotatsu11-33  Hiring sawyers or saws?11-34  Lawns11-35  Street Drain location11-36  Entrance ramp11-37  Entrance, patent vs hidden11-38  Pools11-39  Trees, straight vs. bent11-40  Basins (for washing)11-41  Water to wash hands11-42  

Roofs with things on them!11-43  Pines and pine-nuts11-44   Cherry Tree’s product11-45  Rose and its scent11-46  Japanese blossoms lack scent11-47   Rose water, like vs. dislike11-48   Strong scents?



Ch. 12   Ships


12-1  Types of Ships only “we” have

12-2   Ribs and Decks

12-3  Sailing without oars

12-4  Pitch

12-5  Bow and Stern height

12-6  Sail material

12-7  Rope material

12-8  Anchors

12-9  Bows,  Armored vs. Open.

12-10  Rowing, sit/stand, silent/sing

12-11  Oars, one vs two piece

12-12  Oar blade

12-13  Rowing vs. Sculling

12-14   Fire aboard

12-15  Honor in Bow vs Poop



12-16  Mast shape

12-17  Demasting

12-18   Sails only “we” have

12-19  Night travel

12-20  Rain

12-21  Hiring Boat or boatmen?

12-22  Capacity measurement unit

12-23  Ship Carpenters

12-24  Freight bills

12-25  Flag shape

12-26  Taboo goods

12-27   Superstitions of sailors

12-28   Water on board

12-29   Torn sails ignored?!

12-30   Disembarking, which end?




XIII   Plays & Music

13-1  Play performance time13-2  Actors’ stage appearance13-3  Plays, in verse vs. prose

13-4  Various & ad hoc vs. fixed13-5  Acts13-6  Dressing rooms13-7  Plays, Spoken vs. Sung13-8  Noise during play13-9  Mask size13-10  Music with drama

13-11  Dances with/out song13-12  Dancers13-13  Dancing by day vs. night13-14  Foot vs. hand movement

13-15  Singing poly vs. monotone13-16  Singing with full throat?13-17  Instruments sweet/harsh13-18   Organ music

13-19  Music of nobility & folk13-20  Octave of voice13-21  Guitar vs biwa

13-22  Noble vs. Blind guitar play13-23  Clavichord vs. koto13-24  Blind-men, gallant lovers!13-25  Noblemen up all night!13-26  Food during performances13-27  Jumping while dancing13-28  Bareback and hatless13-29  Plowing 1-man 2-ox & opp.



Ch.  14    Sundry


14-1  Flintstones, striking hand

14-2  Emotion vs. no emotion

14-3  Fire fighting

14-4  Lying

14-5  Killing people at home

14-6  Killing men vs. animals

14-7  Execution for stealing

14-8  Killing substitutes for killing

14-9  Crucifixion

14-10  Punishment of servants

14-11  Prisons and punishment

14-12  Stolen goods

14-13  Fear of the dark

14-14  Fear of snakes

14-15  Sneezing

14-16  Coins vs. scrap by weight

14-17  Balances vs. Scales

14-17/18  Coins with holes

14-18  Coins, face-value vs. choice

14-19  Coins as gift

14-20  Honorifics by noun vs. verb

14-21  Washing hands for dogu

14-22  Boar-hunting

14-23  Fly-killing!

14-24  Monkeys

14-25  Counting by hand vs. abacus

14-26   Present-giving, number of.

14-27  Present, giving medicine?

14-28  Present, brought by guest

14-29  Present enjoyed by guest

14-30  Embracing

14-31  Ball play, hand vs. foot

14-32  On wall or just ground?



14-33  Mills and horse-power

14-34  Socializing, town vs. house

14-35  Smiles

14-36  Clear vs. ambiguous Lang.

14-37  Wearing pelts

14-38  Crowns

14-39  Board games

14-40  Hawk and falcon hoods

14-41  Turnip washing, hands/feet

14-42   Sack material

14-43  Warming hands in fire

14-44  Message giving posture

14-45  Posture while speaking

14-46  Towels for head & feet!

14-47  Nostril-cleaning fingers!

14-48  Courtesy-exchanging face

14-49  Wine keg storage

14-50  Pelt coloring

14-51  Bamboo usages

14-52  Present package adornment

14-53  Rose-water vs. wine on face

14-54  Sweetmeat and drinks

14-55  Bouquet vs. single flowers

14-56  Incense quantity

14-57  Passionate vs. restrained

14-58  Treatment of woman in refuge

14-59  Apologies

14-60  Hoe blades

14-61  Flutes

14-62  Hair of Servants and Horses

14-63  Grapes and Figs

14-64  Visiting Servant’s Houses

14-65  Servants in Master’s clothing